Micro-movement and Micro-pump Effect Analysis of the Implant-Abutment Connection

January 10, 2024

The University of Frankfurt and Main conducted a study in 2010  to examine the existence of a micropump on dental implants. Researchers tested five inspection pieces for each type of implant system tested. Every inspection piece was designed to simulate an implant-supported molar crown in the upper jaw. A polyether material impression simulated the mucous membrane at the implant-abutment interface.

A liquid entrance was created inside every artificial mucous membrane, and a specially designed X-ray contrast medium was brought into the opening. During the load of the 2-D chewing simulator, the inspection pieces were radiated by an X-ray device. A high-speed digital camera recorded the X-ray videos.

Experimental Setup

  • For this study, Fein Focus FXS-160.50 X-ray system was used. The X-ray unit is a constant emitter designed to spread X-rays in a manner that leads to an enlargement of the image of the object. Bulb power (maximum output) was 16 watts. A lead screen was used to prevent radiation from scattering. A closed voltage of 120 keV and a current of 0.1 mA was used.
  • The body of the arch implant sample was embedded in a resin block (Technovit® 4004). Researchers placed the polyether material (Impregum™), carefully ensuring it surrounded the implant-abutment connection (a simulation for the peri-implant tissue). The force was loaded through an Aluminum fabricated ball top, which was glued and screwed to the implant-abutment sample.
  • A liquid channel was created within the simulated gingiva.
  • Cemented caps containing aluminum were manufactured using a centrifugal lathe. They were applied to abutments. The caps were designed to assist with the screwing of the load attachments.
  • All abutments were milled in a center lathe (diameter – 3.45 mm). They were sandblasted carefully with commercial equipment. This served as a reinforcement for the glued connection between the cementing cap and the abutment. The abutments were fixed to the implant using the manufacturer’s specifications.
  • A loading ball cap was manufactured for every inspection piece.
  • Implants were positioned in an embedding mold to ensure an accurate implant position
  • A saliva substitute was chosen based on the basis of mucin. Four human saliva samples were taken, and three contact angles were measured for each sample. The measurements were determined through the use of the Kruss Drop Shape Analysis System DSA 10 MK2. The liquid sample was dropped on the titanium surface and the angle of the contact was determined.
  • All sample pieces were loaded (force applied – 25 N, 50 N, 75 N, 100 N, 125 N, 150 N, 175 N, and 200 N). The axial force vector was enhanced up to the before-defined force. A force application of the horizontal force vector resulted in the inclination of the resultant force vector from 30° to the implant axis.

Evaluation

Every 10th picture was used to generate X-ray videos. The rate of change in the chewing simulator reached up to 0.6 N/ms, whereas the produced force reached up to 0.3 N/ms. The time taken by the axial actuator to produce a force of 0.3 N/ms was determined to calculate the amount of time a sample implant was subjected to each force cycle. Because the actuators and load cameras couldn’t be synchronized accurately using LabVIEW®, researchers decided to set aside an added time (100 pictures) and an overhang time (1,000 pictures) for every cycle period.

The X-ray video was slowed down to simplify the evaluation of the implant-abutment interface. The behavior of the contrast medium in the X-ray device was studied to check for a possible micro-pump effect. All radiographs and X-ray videos were visually inspected. The frames and X-ray videos, during the load without X-ray contrast medium, were evaluated for an existing gap between the implant and abutment. To measure the gap, the frame was examined during and at the maximum load. Every pixel inside the gap was checked, and the exact size of each gap was specified.

Results

Micro-Gap Konus K3Pro™
Load

 

Inspection
Piece 1
Inspection
Piece 2
Inspection
Piece 3
Inspection
Piece 4
Inspection
Piece 5
25N No Space
550
No Space
560
No Space
555
No Space
550
No Space
545
50N No Space
760
No Space
765
No Space
760
No Space
770
No Space
760
75N No Space
955
No Space
955
No Space
940
No Space
960
No Space
950
100N No Space
1050
No Space
1060
No Space
1055
No Space
1060
No Space
1060
125N No Space
1190
No Space
1185
No Space
1195
No Space
1185
No Space
1180
150N No Space
1385
No Space
1380
No Space
1390
No Space
1380
No Space
1380
175N No Space
1590
No Space
1580
No Space
1595
No Space
1590
No Space
1590
200N No Space
1745
No Space
1745
No Space
1780
No Space
1760
No Space
1765

 

Micro-Pump Effect Konus K3Pro™
Load

 

Inspection
Piece 1
Inspection
Piece 2
Inspection
Piece 3
Inspection
Piece 4
Inspection
Piece 5
25N No micro-pump-effect
545
No micro-pump-effect
565
No micro-pump-effect
550
No micro-pump-effect
555
No micro-pump-effect
560
50N No micro-pump-effect
770
No micro-pump-effect
755
No micro-pump-effect
760
No micro-pump-effect
750
No micro-pump-effect
750
75N No micro-pump-effect
965
No micro-pump-effect
945
No micro-pump-effect
960
No micro-pump-effect
955
No micro-pump-effect
950
100N No micro-pump-effect
1060
No micro-pump-effect
1065
No micro-pump-effect
1050
No micro-pump-effect
1045
No micro-pump-effect
1055
125N No micro-pump-effect
1180
No micro-pump-effect
1195
No micro-pump-effect
1180
No micro-pump-effect
1185
No micro-pump-effect
1190
150N No micro-pump-effect
1385
No micro-pump-effect
1375
No micro-pump-effect
1385
No micro-pump-effect
1390
No micro-pump-effect
1385
175N No micro-pump-effect
1580
No micro-pump-effect
1570
No micro-pump-effect
1585
No micro-pump-effect
1575
No micro-pump-effect
1580
200N No micro-pump-effect
1740
No micro-pump-effect
1760
No micro-pump-effect
1775
No micro-pump-effect
1750
No micro-pump-effect
1760

 

Argon Dental USA offers a range of dental implant guides designed to simplify the implant placement. Our state-of-the-art bone loss dental implants utilize superior materials. To learn more, call 844-484-4998.